Passage for Exercise-7

Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below:

   Edmund Burke called the press, the Fourth Estate of the realm. I think he did not use this title for the Press thoughtlessly as a social ruling group of class. The three Estates or Realms (in England) are the Lords Spiritual 1.e. the Bishops in the house of Lords, the Temporal i.e. other Lords and Commons i.e. the common people. The Press has been rightly called the Fourth Estate as it also constitutes a ruling group or class like the Lords and Commons. It cannot be denied in a free country that the Press exercises a good deal of influence in shaping public opinion and pointing out the weakness or defects of society or of Government and, in general, bringing to‘ light all those good or bad things in society which would have otherwise remained unnoticed. The power is not limited or put under any check. The Press, instead of being controlled by any one, controls lifeand thought of a nation. Hence the Press constitutes an Estate by itself.

   Obviously, the power which the Press is any country wields, depends upon the number of newspapers readers. The opinions and comments of newspapers can influence the life of a nation only when they are read by people. Reading, in turn, requires that the genéral mass of people should be educated. Thus, the spread of education determines the extent of the newspapers. Where readers are few, newspapers must necessarily be few. Their influence, in the case, can extend to a small minority of population. In a country like India the percentage of literacy is very low and the standard of journalism is not very high. So, the Press has to play the role of teacher here.


(a) What title was given by Edmund Burke to the Press?
(b) Name the other three Estates as mentioned in the passage.
(c) What does the term Fourth Estate stand for?
(i) landed property
(ii) social ruling group.
(iii) an area of land. |
(iv) instrument of power.
(d) What functions do the press play in a free countrty?
(e) What is the secret of power of the press?
(i) the money which the newspaper owners can invest.
(ii) the number of newspaper readers.
(iii) the extent to which it supports the official policy.
(iv) the patronage of the Government.
(f) What determines the extent of newspaper readers?
(g) Find a word in the passage which means "newspaper and periodicals"?

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