Passage for Exercise-97

Read carefully the passage given below and answer the questions that follow:

   The story of libraries goes back beyond the idea of books as printed today. By about 3500 BC, when it is believed that writing was invented, mass was trying to record what le had done so that others would know of his actions. He first scratched his ideas on walls or pieces of stone, but these things were not easy to handle or move.
   One group of people, the Sumerians, developed a writing system and recorded their messages on clay tablets. These tablets are easily marred or destroyed, so it became necessary to collect and protect them. Archaeologists have shown that, by 2700 BC, the Sumerians had established temple, private and government libraries to hold the tablets. One of the most famous of those libraries was located at Nineveh. It was built after Sumeria was conquered by Babylonia. The Babylonian King, Assur-banipal of Assyria built the library at Nineveh. The library contained about 30,000 tablets.

   In another part of the world, at about the same time, another civilization was developing in ancient Egypt. The Egyptians invented a flexible writing material made from papyrus plant. The material was pressed into a sheet, and a reed brush pen, or calamus, and ink were used to record on it. The style of writing which took the form of pictures, is known as hieroglyphic. The sheets of papyrus were wound in long rolls around knobbed sticks, and placed in chests or in pigeonholed shelves within the library.

   Perhaps the most famous library of that early day was at Alexandria. It was established in about 300 BC during the Greek rule in Egypt. It was estimated that there were as many as 700,000 papyrus rolls in the library by the mid-1st Century BC. The contents of the papyrus rolls were edited, and a bibliography of Greek literature was compiled.


1. How did many try to express his ideas before writing was invented?
2. What were the writing materials used by man at first?
3. Who were the earliest people to develop the system of writing?
4. Why did Sumerians feel it necessary to establish libraries?
5. Who built the library at Nineveh?
6. What was the writing system developed in ancient Egypt?
7. Why is the style of writing developed in ancient Egypt called hieroglyphic?
8. Which one of the following does the passage say? 
   The system of writing was first developed by 
 (i) the Egyptians, 
 (ii) the Sumerians 
 (iii) both the Egyptians and the Sumerians almost simultaneously.

9. Find out from the above passage which have the following meanings :
 (i) folded or wrapped Closely
 (ii) a list of books containing information about their subjects, authors, etc.
 (iii) united in a group.

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